Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is also known as Juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Children less than 16 years of age are mostly affected by J R A. As the term, idiopathic refers to the condition which has no definite cause. Unlike rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and other types of arthritis, which can be commonly associated with adults and above 16 years old, it is completely different in case of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. J R A is also known an auto immune disorder; it primarily affects the synovial joint resulting in stiffness, deformity in shape and pain. Although juvenile rheumatoid arthritis occurs in both the sexes, but it is much more common in females like other rheumatoid diseases. J R A can be of three major types：
- Oligoarticular J R A.
- Polyarticular J R A.
- Systemic J R A.
OLIGOARTICULAR: It is also known as pauciarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Oligo in literally terms means few. Oligoarticular or pauciarticular accounts for more than 50 % of J R A cases. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis involves mostly in big joints, like knees, elbows, ankles. But smaller joints also can get affected.
POLYARTICULAR: Poly means five, more than five joints get affected within the first six months of the disease. With this subtype, mostly neck and jaw gets affected along with smaller joints. It is seen that girls are affected more than boys.
SYSTEMIC: With this kind of arthritis, fever and pink rashes are quite common phenomena. Systemic disease often affects small and large joints. Systemic J R A is quite tough to diagnose as fever and rashes are the only two primary indications related to this subtype. It is quite challenging to gage from the two primary indications, as it can relate with other diseases also.
PROGNOSIS: With the timely medication and proper therapy, many children recover with time and can lead their normal life. If the disease is late to diagnose, with untimely medication and therapy it can lead to bad functioning of joints and poor physical growth. Prognosis or the likelihood of recovery from a disease, especially in the case of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis it depends mainly upon the subtype.
PROGNOSIS OLIGOARTICULAR: It is seen mostly on an average that over all response to medication is excellent. In the case of persistent oligo group, remission can go up to 65 %. Visual complications worsen amongst the children, uveitis are witnessed on the proper examination. Methotrexate and antimetabolite is antifolate drug which are responsible for all of remission successes.
PROGNOSIS POLYARTICULAR: Rheumatoid factor positive polyarthritis may increase the risk factors for prolonged and erosine arthritis. Big joints like hips and shoulders problem may deprive of capabilities and effectiveness. R F neghative poly arthritis may have a good chance of 50 % remission probably after long time. Risk of uveitis is comparatively low.
PROGNOSIS SYSTEMIC: Because of poor indications gauging prognosis is very difficult. Joints may be affected drastically with this subtype. 50% of most cases in the systemic J R A may be active for more than 10 years.
Early noticing of children problems and consulting with physicians without wasting the valuable time might help ones child to recover fast. Delay can harm the most in this type of cases. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis prognosis is only possible if diagnosed fast.