Researches shows autoimmune conditions like in case of rheumatoid arthritis, where body’s own antigen which causes to produce antibody fails to recognize its own healthy cells and starts to kill them. Human body’s internal working pattern is such it produces antibodies to fight harmful and suspected agents mainly virus, parasitic worms etc. In autoimmune disease this distinction between helpful and harmful cells fails to function properly. White blood cells (W B C) are mainly responsible for internal security of our human body.
Plasma cells are W B Cs; there are mainly two types of lymphocytes small and large. Natural killer cells (N K Cells) falls under the category of large cytotoxic lymphocytes, and small lymphocytes are T and B cells. T cells works like a cell mediated immunity and humoral immunity is the pattern for B cells. T and B cells works as a team in our internal system, B cells produces antibodies which normally attacks the obnoxious cells like bacteria and virus. But T cells mainly point out the non self element and guide the B cells to function properly.
The whole failure of both B and T cells apparently narrate the whole scenario which usually occurs in rheumatoid arthritis. Researchers believes as the T cells use to direct the immunity and the whole process by teaming up with B cells, therefore it is a subject of suspect that T cells failure is what that mainly causes auto immunity.
What causes autoimmune disease is still not known completely. But most forms of autoimmune disease has got no obvious reason. If a person developed auto immunity or suffering from autoimmune disease like rheumatoid arthritis, till date it is incurable. There are probably different factors which can ignite autoimmune disorder or systemic autoimmune disease. Mainly hereditary, hormonal, T N F or abnormal lifestyle can become one of the factor.
It is necessary for a disease to be considered as an autoimmune disease it must satisfy all clauses of Witebsky’s postulates, written by Emst Witebsky himself; he is also the co-author of the book. It was later modified in early 90’s. Rheumatoid arthritis is now considered as an autoimmune disease the prime factors that ignite R A are T N F (tumor necrosis factor) and hereditary.
- TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR: It is kind of tiny cell signaling or cell sensor protein molecules; it is classified as glycoproteins or proteins which primarily fall within the cytokines group that mainly causes apoptosis or cell death.
- HEREDITARY FACTOR: Protein tyrosine phosphate, non receptor type 22 gene is mainly considered as the contributory factor for the autoimmune disorders. PTPN22 lymphocyte self assume an immunity role when mainly challenged with an antigen that is considered as the main cause behind the inflammation.
Conclusive factor that can resist auto immunity or the autoimmune disease are; a counter mechanism for auto antibodies is needed which can break this fast growing vicious cycle. Now a days with advancement in medical science it is possible to restrict certain cells, but capability of the whole process is quite time bound. But the process is certainly on the right track, it is quite encouraging that new things and advancement is seen on regular basis.