Rheumatoid arthritis hypersensitivity is a state of opposite reaction where the immune system of a body attacks the body cells as an alien substance. Rheumatoid arthritis on the other hand is an autoimmune disease where the joints of the bones are affected. On its progression the disease also affects the other body parts like the heart, kidney, stomach, eyes, etc. Hypersensitivity is a type of reaction which is caused due to the immune system and it includes allergies and autoimmunity. This makes a patient uncomfortable, can be damaging, and even it can be fatal for few patients. Rheumatoid arthritis hypersensitivity was classified into four groups like type I, type II, type III, and type IV hypersensitivity in 1963 by G.Gell and Robin Coombs.
Rheumatoid arthritis hypersensitivity Type I
Rheumatoid arthritis hypersensitivity Type I, is also called immediate hypersensitivity reaction where the reaction takes place in the skin or eczema, eyes as conjunctivitis, gastrointestinal tract, on bronchopulmonary tissues as asthma, etc. This reaction involves many symptoms which may even cause fatal to the patient. Due to the exposure of antigen, the reaction generally takes place within half an hour, but in some rare case it may take as long as few hours. Mast cell is the basic cell component of this immediate hypersensitivity and the reaction is done by platelets, eosinophils, and neutrophils and is mediated by IgE.
Rheumatoid arthritis hypersensitivity Type II
Rheumatoid arthritis hypersensitivity Type II is also called cytotoxic hypersensitivity reaction where the reaction takes place in several organs and tissues. In this reaction the antigens are endogenous but the exogenous antigen chemicals also called haptens gets attached to the cell membranes leading a patient to Type II hypersensitivity. Due to this exogenous antigen the reaction generally takes place within few minutes to an hour. Type II hypersensitivity is mediated by IgM or IgG due to some antibodies. Anti inflammatory and disease modifying drugs are the conventional treatment of this Type II reaction.
Rheumatoid arthritis hypersensitivity Type III
Rheumatoid arthritis hypersensitivity Type III is called immune complex hypersensitivity reaction where the reaction takes place in the organs like the skin, kidney, blood vessels, lungs, and in the joints too. The reaction involved is pathogenic in nature and is caused due to presence of some micro organisms. Due to exposure to antigen in Arthur’s reaction, the reaction generally takes place within few hours. Type III hypersensitivity is mediated by some soluble immune complexes called IgG class. IgM class also has some part to play in this reaction. In this reaction skin test should be done for tuberculosis and the treatment includes some anti inflammatory drugs.
Rheumatoid arthritis hypersensitivity Type IV
Rheumatoid arthritis hypersensitivity Type IV is also called mediated or delayed hypersensitivity reaction where the reaction takes place on the skin. This is termed so because the reaction takes two to three days to develop. It is not anti body mediated as that of other reactions, it is a type of cell mediated response. Tuberculin or montoux is a classical example of this Rheumatoid arthritis hypersensitivity Type IV reaction.