Auto immune disease like R A which caused by sudden development of vicious auto antibodies is termed as rheumatoid factors. Antibodies are simple proteins mainly found in blood which works within and around the immune system. Increased level in rheumatoid factors mostly found amongst the mid-aged and older persons. Antibody titer test reflects the result that shows the probable amount of antibodies present in the blood. High level of rheumatoid factor levels indicating by the blood test means above 20 IU/ ml titer and normal indicates of 14 units/ml R F titers.
Rheumatoid factor can be positive in many other diseases, like Sjogren’s syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis etc. There are other infections which can also be associated with positive rheumatoid factor like, osteomyelitis, T B, syphilis, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis etc. There are few tests which show R F levels, agglutination tests and nephlometry tests are the most common ones.
- AGGLUTINATION TEST: In this test blood from the patient is collected and mixed with tiny particles of latex (rubber) beads consisting of antibodies (IgG). If the latex beads clump or cluster that means IgM rheumatoid factor is present.
- NEPHLOMETRY TEST: Through a hollow tube, light is passed that contains the patient’s blood mixed with antibodies. Then it is evaluated how much of the light source is blocked by the solution. More cloudy or hazy samples means high R F. Nephlometry test is measured in units.
What exactly does it means by the term high or normal rheumatoid factor levels?
NORMAL RHEUMATOID FACTORS (R F): There are mainly two ways to show a R F report, basically the common patterns are:
- Less than 40 – 60 U/ml.
- Less than 1 : 80 (1 to 80) titer.
These reading may vary slightly with different laboratory parameter. Take the guidance of a physician to understand the status of your report. A low number represents that the patient is not effected by rheumatoid arthritis.
HIGH OR ABNORMAL RHEUMATOID FACTORS: If a test is positive that indicates a patient is having higher levels of R F from his/ her blood sample. Most of the patient suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and other auto immune disease will have a higher level of R F, about 80% of them. It is seen patients having higher level of R F is not diagnosed as a R A or Sjogren’s syndrome, consult and make the doctor a detailed go through with the report.
All these are related to serology which is a study that is related to blood, serum, and study of other bodily fluids. Serology is useful for diagnostic purpose which study and identify the antibodies in the sample serum. There are various methods to conduct serology techniques, like; agglutination test, E L I S A (Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), complement fixation, D F A (direct fluorescent antibody test) etc.
Apart from R F test, one should have his/her blood test done to determine on the factual ground whether you have R A antibodies or ACCP( anti cyclic citrullinated peptide) antibodies. Rheumatoid arthritis disease can also be diagnosed if a patient has a higher ESR (electrocyte sedimentation rate). Conducting an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) can be beneficial for the tally purpose for a physician.